Ergonomic desk Human Factors and Work Design Principles.

Ergonomics and human factors am often terms often used synonymously. Equally describe the interaction involving the worker or operator and also the work interface. The two are concerned with trying to reduce work stress in the ongoing work place. Ergonomics traditionally has focused on how a ongoing work affects men and women and how to fit the worker to the work. This concentration includes assessing the work loads, physiologic responses to the work, biomechanics and anthropometrics. In contrast, human factors engineering has been more tightly focused on the man-machine interface ordinarily, as well as human engineering. In other words, making the process flow more together with less human error effectively. Human factors engineering, ordinarily has focused on human dimension and behavior stereotypes in accordance with the work interface for example the work area and products design.

Goals of Human Factors Engineering

The objectives of human factors engineering are to reduce the potential for human error, reduce effort along with enhance worker performance. The effective use of human factors engineering design to ergonomics in the workplace can vary from product size in addition to configuration to the execution of producing systems. The goal of human aspects engineering is to create a see-thorugh interface between the workers plus the tools and equipment that they use to acquire products or provide providers. By designing a worker-work interface that falls inside the worker’s physical and intellectual capabilities, and by reducing typically the exposure to risk factors, which could contribute to musculoskeletal injuries, work-related accidents and injuries will probably be minimized. In addition , work interfaces, whenever well designed will result in predictable human behavior patterns that will be methodical and routine, hence resulting in a reduction of human error and the enhanced regularity and quality of worker performance.

Population Stereotypes

Human factors design uses engineering psychology, case study of designing systems, good given information processing functionality of the human mind. Architectural psychology is based on the idea that human behavior is estimated, and thus, uses this conduct to design the most productive work stations with the lowest amount of potential for error. Each time a work interface is designed very well, typically the work performed at this program will be routine and constant. This idea applies to all work routines, whether it requires the controlling of automatic equipment or the creation of goods on an assembly line. This is because often the work interface is easy to study or interpret and there is small distraction or confusion which may result in worker error as well as injury. Each time a work interface is designed, the software is difficult to read or perhaps interpret and may be complicated for some workers. In this problem, there is a higher probability for any workers to perform less successfully, by working harder in addition to making more mistakes! Essentially, performing less efficiently. With time, this specific over working will cause tiredness and over stress the joints in addition to muscles, bring about an increased incidence of musculoskeletal injuries thus. The consequences involving injuries and errors for the production line are decrease production rates and cheaper quality of the product or service.

So as to enhance worker performance, lower worker fatigue and tension and at the same time minimize human problem, typically the work interface must be developed in such a way that the work will be performed routinely as well as consistently. In other words, typically the work interface must be attractive. The actual design of work barrière is the design of how for you to transfer information really. Facts is transferred from the detailed system operator via a handle mechanism. Control mechanisms consist of keyboards, computer mice, redressers, buttons, switches, steering added wheels, or cranks. Info is transferred from a work interface to the worker additionally. The worker reads a computer display, indicator or control panel and makes use of this given information to regulate equipment, enter data, as well as monitor production levels. Functionality is dependent on how fast and easy the actual given information transfer method is. This kind of level of performance can be superior if the controls operate jointly expects them to, ie they comply with population stereotypes.

Population prototypes are based on outcome predictions. These kinds of stereotypes evolved from observing as well as studying human behavior final results in response to certain situations. Human population stereotypes are based on the idea that people expect things to respond in certain ways when they are functioning controls or when they are in many environments. Population stereotypes are generally then used to design extrémité that result in predictable human behavior and safe as well as efficient work practices. This specific use of predictable human conduct or population stereotypes may also help to minimize human problems and thus enhance worker efficiency. Some examples of population images include the following:

-Color choices- Red signifies “stop” or even “danger”, yellow signifies “warning” “slow” or “caution”, and also Green signifies “go”. Flashing lights tend to reveal “warning” or “alert”.
-The “up” position of a transition signifies “on”, the “down” position signifies “off”.
-The “up ” position denotes “start”, the “down” place signifies “stop”.
-Rotary handles are expected to turn clockwise with regard to “on” positions, and counterclockwise for “off” positions.

Human Error

The goals regarding human factors engineering should be reduce the potential for human blunder, reduce effort and improve worker performance. There are about three types of human error, seen in the ongoing work setting. All three occur, and all several have the same outcome, which may be an accident, an accident, or even reduced production quality as well as rate. The initial type of human error noticed in the work setting may be the perception error. The particular perception error is as soon as the operator or worker doesn’t perceive or notice the alert or error indicator. This may occur if a worker expects to see a red mild indicating “Stop” or “warning” but instead sees a glowing blue light.

The other type of error that is seen in the work setting can be an error in decision-making. Typically the decision-making error occurs when the agent or worker is inundated with other decisions at the same time. The particular operator must chose which usually decision to focus on, and prefers to ignore the warning. This can occur when a machine driver is given multiple machines to perform and is not physically qualified to attend all three machines previously.

The third type of human mistake seen in the workplace is an motion error. Typically the action error occurs when the worker or operator reacts towards the warning, but can so incorrectly. This develops when a worker activates an incorrect control mechanism, or travels the control in the drastically wrong direction. This error could possibly be due to confusing or to be able to read control panels or maybe control switches that are not according to expected outcomes. If a worker, turns a control transition down, expecting the machine to end, but instead, the machine stayed upon, or increased power, it is against the expected outcome belief, yet this situation would result in a job error still. In order to control or maybe minimize these human mistakes, work area design should be organized and very easy to read and recognize carefully.

Universal Design

The thought of Universal Design evolved from assessing the types of human error seen in the work setting and also studying the stereotypical habits of the human population. Common Design is the concept of building products or work settings that will be used by a variety of individuals, having a large range of cognitive and actual abilities, working in a wide variety of work situations. Universal Design was made to reduce the types of human issues observed in the workplace as well as increase worker productivity. This concept involving universal design, or building for the population, includes work design for those individuals with not any impairments, as well as, with regard to designing for those individuals with well-designed limitations or cognitive or perhaps physical impairments. The guidelines or goals of widespread design include:

-Minimize misunderstandings.
-Minimize complexity.
-Make necessary information clear.


Models from human factors engineering, worldwide design and population prototypes are used to modify or design work areas. In practical phrases these engineering concepts are needed to enhance human performance, minimize worker fatigue, assist in safe and appropriate resume work for an injured worker and reduce human error.